A look at how gangster jazz music has changed and evolved over the years.
Origins of Gangster Jazz
Gangster Jazz music is a blend of traditional Jazz and Hip-Hop. It originated in the early 1990s in New York City. Gangster Jazz artists often sampled from Jazz records and used Jazz element in their music. The resulting sound was a unique blend of two genres that appealed to a wide range of people.
1920s – early days of jazz
In the early days of jazz, music was played in brothels and bars in New Orleans. These venues were often frequented by criminal elements of society, who would sometimes hire musicians to play for them. This gave rise to the term “gangster jazz”, which described the type of music played in these establishments.
Gangster jazz was often characterized by its fast tempo and rhythm, as well as its improvisational nature. This made it the perfect soundtrack for illicit activities such as gambling and drinking. It also resonated with the rebellious streak of many gangsters, who saw themselves as outsiders who were not bound by societal rules.
Over time, gangster jazz became more popular with mainstream audiences and began to influence other genres of music. It remains an important part of American culture, and its influence can still be heard in many modern songs.
1930s – the birth of swing
The 1930s was the decade that saw the birth of swing and the beginning of gangster jazz. This style of jazz was characterized by a fast tempo, brass instruments, and repetitive melodies. It was often associated with the underworld and with illegal activities such as gambling and bootlegging. gangster jazz became popular in nightclubs and speakeasies across America, and it soon began to influence other genres of music.
The first gangster jazz band to achieve mainstream success was the Benny Goodman Orchestra, whose hits “Sing, Sing, Sing” and “Airmail Special” helped to make swing one of the most popular genres of the decade. Other notable gangster jazz bands of the 1930s included Cab Calloway and his Orchestra, Duke Ellington and his Orchestra, Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra, and Count Basie and His Orchestra.
1940s – bebop and the rise of cool jazz
During the 1940s, a new style of jazz emerged from the creative minds of young African American musicians. Innovative and experimental, this new music was known as bebop, and it would go on to have a profound impact on the evolution of gangster jazz.
As bebop developed, it began to incorporate elements of cool jazz, resulting in a sound that was both sophisticated and streetwise. This new style quickly became popular with gangsters and burgeoning hipsters alike, who appreciated its urban sophistication.
During this time, many of the biggest names in gangster jazz began to emerge, including Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Thelonious Monk. These artists would go on to define the genre with their distinctive sounds and innovative approaches to improvisation.
The Golden Age of Gangster Jazz
The 1920s was the golden age for gangster jazz music. It was a time when the music industry was booming and artists were able to experiment with different sounds and styles. This is the era that gave birth to the likes of Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Benny Goodman.
1950s – the birth of hard bop
In the early 1950s, bebop – a style characterised by fast tempo, complex chord progressions and improvisation – was the prevailing form of jazz. But by the middle of the decade, a new style was beginning to take hold.
Hard bop was a reaction against the cerebral, often abstract sounding style of bebop. It returned jazz to its roots, with a focus on melody and accessible chord progressions. It also brought jazz back to its African-American roots, with a greater focus on the blues.
Artists like Horace Silver, Miles Davis and Art Blakey were at the forefront of this new style, which would come to dominate jazz in the 1950s and 1960s.
1960s – the birth of fusion
The golden age of gangster jazz can be traced back to the early 1960s, when a new generation of musicians began to experiment with the genre. This period saw the birth of fusion, a style of music that combined elements of jazz, rock, and R&B. The most famous exponent of fusion was Miles Davis, who collaborated with artists like Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, and Wayne Shorter to create some of the most influential music of the 20th century.
Other important figures in the golden age of gangster jazz include saxophonists John Coltrane and Sonny Rollins, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, and trombonist J.J. Johnson. These musicians helped to broaden the scope of the genre and create a new sound that would go on to dominate jazz in the years to come.
1970s – the birth of hip hop
In the early 1970s, DJ Kool Herc and Afrika Bambaataa began to develop the musical style that would later be called hip hop. Drawing on earlier traditions of African American music, including jazz, soul, funk, and Latin music, these DJs created a new type of music by mixing together records and adding their own rhythmic touch. This new sound quickly found its way to the streets of New York City, where it soon became the soundtrack for a new generation of young people.
The Modern Era of Gangster Jazz
The modern era of Gangster Jazz can be marked by the release of two seminal albums: “The Last Poets” self-titled debut album in 1970 and “This is Hip Hop” by The Dynamic Seven in 1971. These albums signaled a change in the direction of Gangster Jazz, with a focus on more political and socially conscious lyrics, and a more funky and psychedelic sound. This new direction was continued by artists like Kool and the Gang, Funkadelic, and Parliament.
1980s – the birth of neo-bop
In the 1980s, a new generation of jazz musicians began to experiment with the sounds and styles of bebop and hard bop, resulting in a subgenre known as neo-bop. Musicians such as Wynton Marsalis and Branford Marsalis (Wynton’s brother), along with other members of the so-called “Young Lions” movement, were at the forefront of this sound.
While neo-bop did have its detractors — many felt that it was too derivative of earlier styles — there is no denying that it was popular with audiences. In fact, it helped to revive interest in jazz among young people who might otherwise have been turned off by the avant-garde sounds that were prevalent in the genre at the time.
1990s – the birth of contemporary jazz
In the early 1990s, a new breed of jazz artist began to emerge. Musicians such as Brad Mehldau, Joshua Redman, and Wynton Marsalis were influenced as much by hip hop and rock as they were by the bebop and hard bop of the 1950s. This new style of jazz came to be known as contemporary jazz.
While contemporary jazz still contains elements of traditional jazz, it is characterized by a more modern sensibility. This is reflected in the use of electric instruments and a focus on improvisation. Contemporary jazz also often incorporates elements of other genres, such as funk and R&B.
The 1990s saw the rise of many great contemporary jazz musicians, including pianist Herbie Hancock, saxophonist Wayne Shorter, and bassist Ron Carter. These artists continued to push the boundaries of what jazz could be, and their work laid the foundation for the further evolution of the genre in the years to come.
2000s – the birth of post-bop
The early 2000s saw the rise of post-bop, a subgenre of jazz that blended the traditional elements of the genre with influences from other genres such as funk, rock, and hip hop. Post-bop is often credited with revitalizing the jazz scene and attracting younger audiences.
Among the most notable post-bop artists are saxophonist Kamasi Washington, trumpeter Terence Blanchard, and pianist Robert Glasper. Washington’s debut album The Epic (2015) was met with widespread critical acclaim, while Blanchard’s scoring work for films such as Black Panther (2018) and Da 5 Bloods (2020) has earned him numerous awards. Glasper, meanwhile, has collaborated with a wide range of artists including Kendrick Lamar, Mos Def, and Erykah Badu.
Keyword: The Evolution of Gangster Jazz Music